Enneagram Personality System as an Effective Model in Prediction of Risk of Cardiovascular Diseases: A Case-Control Study

Document Type : Original Article


1 Master of Clinical Psychology, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Kermanshah, Iran

2 MD, Ph.D, Lifestyle Modification Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

3 Master of Clinical Psychology, Lifestyle Modification Research Center, Imam Reza Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran

4 Ph.D. Student of Psychology, Cardiac Rehabilitation Center, Imam Ali Hospital, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Kermanshah, Iran

5 Ph.D. Student of Psychology, Social Development and Health Promotion Research Center, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran


Introduction: Studies on behavioral patterns and personality traits play a critical role in the prediction of healthy or unhealthy behaviors and identification of high-risk individuals for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in order to implement preventive strategies. This study aimed to compare personality types in individuals with and without CVD based on the enneagram of personality.
Materials and Methods: This case-control study was conducted on 96 gender-matched participants (48 CVD patients and 48 healthy subjects).Data were collected using the Riso-Hudson Enneagram Type Indicator (RHETI). Data analysis was performed in SPSS V.20 using MANOVA, Chi-square, and T-test.
Results: After adjustment for age and gender there is a significant difference between two groups (and male) in term of personality types one and five. In CVD patients, score of personality type one (F(1,94)=9.476) (P=0.003) was significantly higher, while score of personality type five was significantly lower (F(1,94)=6.231) (P=0.014), compared to healthy subjects. However, this significant difference was only observed in the score of personality type one in female patients (F(1,66)=4.382) (P=0.04).
Conclusion: Identifying healthy personality type one individuals before CVD development, providing necessary training on the potential risk factors of CVDs, and implementation of preventive strategies (e.g., anger management skills) could lead to positive outcomes for the society and healthcare system. It is recommended that further investigation be conducted in this regard. 


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