Mediastinal Neuroendocrine Carcinoma of Unknown Origin Presenting with Superior Vena Cava Syndrome (SVCS): A Case Report

Document Type: Case Report

Authors

1 Pulmonologist, Lung Disease Research Center, Faculty of Medicine Mashhad University of Medicine Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

2 Internist, Lung Disease Research Center, Faculty of Medicine Mashhad University of Medicine Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

3 Internal Medicine Resident, Faculty of Medicine Mashhad University of Medicine Sciences, Mashhad, Iran

4 Pulmonologist, Internal Medicine Department, Bojnurd. North khorasan Medical University, Bojnurd, Iran

Abstract

Primary neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) of the mediastinum is a rare type of carcinoma. According to the literature, only five cases of this condition have been reported so far. In this paper, we present a rare case of mediastinal NEC of unknown primary site. The patient was a 34-year-old man with mediastinal NEC, who presented with chronic dry cough and a right-sided mediastinal mass one year prior to hospital admission (winter 1391). His condition was confirmed by cervical lymph node biopsy. The patient refused to undergo chemotherapy treatment. During the hospital admission, the patient presented with severe dyspnea and signs of superior vena cava syndrome. Contrast-enhanced CT scan of the chest revealed a large heterogeneous mass extended from the right superior mediastinum to the right lung base with the encasement of the superior vena cava. After radiotherapy, the patient′s symptoms subsided and he underwent etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy. After a 20-month patient follow-up, the subject remained alive and symptom-free.

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